Made From Milk, Dairy Products - Milchprodukte
The following goods can be found on shelves in most grocery stores in Germany, Canada and the United States.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals. Milk is known to contain amounts of saturated fat, protein and calcium. Modern dairies produce milk with different fat contents from whole milk to skim milk. This is done by first removing all of the butterfat, and then adding back the appropriate amount, depending the product.
Whole Milk (Vollmilch)
Full cream or whole milk has the full milk fat content of about 3.4 percent. Whole milk is good for developing toddlers who are being switched from the high-fat mother's milk to milk formula.
Low Fat and Skim Milk (Magermilch oder Fettarme Milch)
Low fat milk or semi-skimmed milk only has a percentage of 1.5 to 1.8 of fat content. During the production process, all fat is first taken out and later added again. In the USA, skimmed milk can also be labeled "fat free" because it contains less than half a gram of fat per serving.
Whipped Cream (Schlagsahne)
Cream with 30 percent or more fat can be turned into whipped cream by mixing it with air. The resulting foam is roughly double the volume of the original cream as tiny air bubbles are captured in a network of fat droplets. Whipped cream is sold ready-to-use in pressurized containers. Today it is also sold in chocolate and other flavors.
Butter is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. It is used as a spread and condiment, as well as in cooking.
Buttermilk is the liquid left over after making butter from cream during the churning process (stirring milk until it forms into butter). It has a slightly sour taste, and is often used in making baking, as well as an ingredient in soups and sauces. Buttermilk can be also consumed as a drink.
Sour Cream (Saure Sahne, Schmand, Crème fraîche)
Sour Cream is produced by fermenting regular heavy cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria. Sour cream contains 16 to 21 percent fat. Used in Europe and North America, it is usually added as a topping, for example a dolop is often added to a baked potato or to a bowl of soup or chili.
Yogurt is made by bacterial fermentation of milk sugar (lactose) which produces lactic acid, which in turn affects the milk protein to give the yogurt its characteristic flavor and texture. Today yogurt comes in many different sizes and flavors, depending on the country and culture. It also varies in fat content from no fat and low fat versions all the way to whole milk yogurt.
Quark or curd cheese (Quark)
Quark or curd cheese is a type of fresh cheese of Central European origin. It is soft, white and un-aged, and tastes like a mix of cream cheese, ricotta and sour cream. It can be enjoyed in its pure, plain form but also is available, primarily in Europe, in many different flavor varieties, such as with herbs or different fruits. This dairy product is fairly hard to find in North America.
Cheese is solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. Cheese is made by curdling milk using a combination of rennet (enzymes produced in the stomach of a cow or other mammals) and certain bacteria. The bacteria acidify the milk and play a role in defining the texture and flavor of most cheeses. Other ingredients which are added to cheese to make popular varieties are herbs and spices, peppers, mushrooms and other flavor enhancers. Some cheeses also feature mold cultures (perfectly edible, not to be confused with the harmful mold which grows on foods when they go bad), either on the outer rind or throughout (like blue cheese).
Ice Cream (Eis)
Ice cream is a frozen dessert and is made by combining cream with different flavorings and sweeteners, such as sugar. The mixture is stirred slowly while cooling to prevent ice crystals from forming. Today ice cream comes in a myriad of flavors. It is usually served in a cup or bowl, in a cone or on a stick.
Powdered milk (Milchpulver)
Powdered milk is dehydrated milk which is used as an ingredient in many food staples you buy at the supermarket, such as coffee creamer and baby formula. Powdered milk has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated. It is used in many developing countries and wherever fresh milk is not a viable option.